The families of flowering plants.
Habit and leaf form. Much branched, small trees, or shrubs; leptocaul. Leaves alternate; leathery; simple. Lamina entire; pinnately veined (the laterals closely parallel-ascending, cf. Sapotaceae). Leaves exstipulate. Lamina margins entire.
Stem anatomy. Primary vascular tissue bicollateral. Internal phloem present. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. ‘Included’ phloem absent.
Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite.
Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’ (and extra-axillary), or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; when aggregated, in racemes, or in fascicles. Inflorescences axillary; few flowered axillary racemes or fascicles. Flowers regular to very irregular; when irregular, zygomorphic. The floral irregularity when noticeable, involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers 4–6 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk present (usually large, fleshy and lobed).
Perianthwith distinct calyx and corolla; 8–12; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx 4–6; 1 whorled; gamosepalous (the segments rarely almost free); persistent; valvate.Corolla 4–6; 1 whorled; gamopetalous; valvate; campanulate, or funnel-shaped; unequal but not bilabiate, or regular (the mostly short lobes equal to unequal).
Androecium 4–6. Androecial members adnate (to the corolla); all equal, or markedly unequal; free of one another; 1 whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens (?). Stamens 4–6; isomerous with the perianth; long filantherous (the anthers exserted). Anthers dorsifixed (near the base, sagittate); versatile. Pollen grains aperturate; 3 aperturate; colporate (colporoidate).
Gynoecium 1 carpelled (ostensibly), or 2 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. The pistil 1 celled, or 2 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous (but Henoonia pseudomonomerous); synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous;superior. Ovary 1 locular, or 2 locular. Locules without ‘false septa’. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1; apical; long. Stigmas capitate or bilobed. Placentationwhen unilocular, basal; when bilocular, basal. Ovules in the single cavity 2; 2 per locule; collateral.
Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy (sometimes leathery); indehiscent; a berry; 1–2 seeded. Seeds non-endospermic. Embryo well differentiated (and large). Cotyledons 2, or 4 (sometimes). Testa plicate.
Geography, cytology. Neotropical. Temperate to tropical. Mexico, West Indies.
Taxonomy.Subclass Dicotyledonae; Tenuinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Solaniflorae; Solanales (?). Cronquist’s Subclass Asteridae; Solanales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Asteranae; lamiid; Order Solanales (as a synonym of Solanaceae).
Species 7. Genera 4; Coeloneurum, Espadaea, Goetzea, Henoonia.
Economic uses, etc. The berry of Espadaea edible, with the flavour of apricot.