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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Resedaceae S.F. Gray

                        

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IncludingAsterocarpaceae Kerner

Habit and leaf form. Herbs (mostly), or shrubs (a few). Annual, or biennial, or perennial; with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves. Mesophytic, or xerophytic. Leaves alternate; spiral; petiolate to sessile; non-sheathing; simple; epulvinate. Lamina dissected (sometimes deeply so), or entire; when dissected pinnatifid, or palmatifid (sometimes trifid); one-veined, or pinnately veined. Leaves stipulate. Stipules intrapetiolar; free of one another; represented by glands. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem.

Leaf anatomy. Mucilaginous epidermis present, or absent. Stomata present; anomocytic (sometimes accompanied by myrosin cells). Hairs present; eglandular; unicellular.

Lamina dorsiventral, or isobilateral, or centric. The mesophyll generally without calcium oxalate crystals. Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells (Reseda).

Stem anatomy. Nodes unilacunar. Secondary thickening absent (?), or developing from a conventional cambial ring. Xylem with libriform fibres; with vessels. Vessel end-walls simple. Vessels without vestured pits. Sieve-tube plastids S-type.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite (usually), or androdioecious (sometimes, by abortion, in Ochradenus).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in racemes and in spikes. The ultimate inflorescence unit racemose. Inflorescences racemes and spikes. Flowers bracteate; ebracteolate; small to medium-sized; very irregular; zygomorphic. The floral irregularity involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Floral receptacle (usually?) developing an androphore (often with the extra-staminal disk more strongly developed posticously), or developing a gynophore, or developing an androphore and developing a gynophore. Free hypanthium absent.

Perianthwith distinct calyx and corolla, or sepaline (petals sometimes lacking); (4–)12(–16); 2 whorled (usually), or 1 whorled; anisomerous (often), or isomerous (sometimes?). Calyx (4–)6(–8); 1 whorled; polysepalous, or gamosepalous (sometimes more or less connate below); unequal but not bilabiate (sometimes), or regular; persistent; imbricate (slightly), or valvate. Corolla when present, (2–)6(–8); 1 whorled; polypetalous (usually), or gamopetalous (rarely connate); valvate, or with open aestivation; unequal but not bilabiate (with the innermost, posterior member larger, the outer members usually progressively smaller and with fewer appendages); white, or yellow; persistent, or deciduous. Petals clawed (usually, broadly so, with scalelike appendages); (at least the innermost largest, usually) fringed, or deeply bifid.

Androecium 3–50 (or more — the number very indefinite). Androecial members theoretically maturing centrifugally; free of the perianth; markedly unequal (the posterior members usually shorter), or all equal; free of one another (usually), or coherent; in Oligomeris, 1 adelphous. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 3–50 (or more); isomerous with the perianth to polystemonous. Anthers dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral. Pollen grains aperturate; 3 aperturate; colpate, or colporate (colporoidate); 2-celled (in Reseda).

Gynoecium (2–)3–6(–7) carpelled. The pistil when syncarpous, 1 celled. Gynoecium apocarpous to syncarpous; eu-apocarpous (Sesamoides), or semicarpous (Caylusea), or synovarious (usually); superior. Carpel in Sesamoides and Caylusea incompletely closed; in Sesamoides 1(–2) ovuled. Placentation in Sesamoides basal. Ovary usually syncarpous and 1 locular. The ‘odd’ carpel posterior. Gynoecium non-stylate. Stigmas (2–)3–6(–7); commissural, or dorsal to the carpels and commissural; dry type; non-papillate; Group II type. Placentation parietal (usually), or basal (Caylusia).Ovules in the single cavity 5–100 (‘few to many’); pendulous, or ascending; with ventral raphe; arillate, or non-arillate; hemianatropous, or campylotropous; bitegmic; tenuinucellate, or crassinucellate. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Synergids hooked. Endosperm formation nuclear. Embryogeny onagrad.

Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; an aggregate (sometimes, the carpels spreading), or not an aggregate. The fruiting carpel of Sesamoides a follicle. Fruit indehiscent; capsular-indehiscent (but apically open), or a berry. Seeds more or less non-endospermic; reniform. Embryo well differentiated. Embryo chlorophyllous (2 species of Reseda); curved, or bent. The radicle dorsal.

Seedling.Germination phanerocotylar.

Physiology, biochemistry. Mustard-oils present. Cyanogenic, or not cyanogenic. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins absent. Flavonols present, or absent; kaempferol, or kaempferol and quercetin. Ellagic acid absent (3 Reseda species). Aluminium accumulation not found. C3. C3 physiology recorded directly in Ochradenus, Reseda. Anatomy non-C4 type (Ochradenus, Reseda).

Peculiar feature. The young, syncarpous unilocular gynoecium and later the capsule open (usually), or gynoecium and fruit not as in Resedaceae.

Geography, cytology. Temperate to sub-tropical. Southwest Eurasia, Mediterranean, North Africa and Middle East, South Africa, Southwest U.S.A. and Mexico. X = 6–15.

Taxonomy.Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Violiflorae; Capparales. Cronquist’s Subclass Dilleniidae; Capparales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; malvid; Order Brassicales.

Species 70. Genera 6; Caylusea, Ochradenus, Oligomeris, Randonia,Reseda, Sesamoides.

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