The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Orchidaceae Juss.


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IncludingLimodoraceae Horan., Thyridiaceae Dulac, Vanillaceae Lindl.Excluding Apostasiaceae, Cypripediaceae

Habit and leaf form. Herbs (of diverse forms). ‘Normal’ plants, or switch-plants, or plants of very peculiar vegetative form (some producing but a single leaf, some achlorophyllous, two species completely subterranean); sometimes with the principal photosynthesizing function transferred to stems, or ‘cactoid’; sometimes no clear distinction between stems, roots and leaves, the stem bearing photosynthetic appendages equipped with animal-trapping bladders. Leaves well developed, or much reduced, or absent (sometimes). Plants succulent (often), or non-succulent; autotrophic, or saprophytic. Perennial; with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves; cormous, or rhizomatous, or tuberous (or ‘pseudobulbs’). Self supporting, or epiphytic (predominantly), or climbing. Helophytic, or mesophytic, or xerophytic. Leaves small to large; alternate (usually), or opposite (rarely), or whorled (rarely); spiral, or distichous; flat, or folded, or rolled, or terete; ‘herbaceous’, or leathery, or fleshy, or membranous; imbricate, or not imbricate; petiolate; sheathing. Leaf sheaths tubular;with free margins. Leaves edgewise to the stem, or with ‘normal’ orientation; simple; often jointed at the hase of the blade. Lamina entire; generally linear, or lanceolate, or oblong, or ovate; parallel-veined; cross-venulate (usually), or without cross-venules; auriculate at the base, or cordate, or hastate, or sagittate, or attenuate at the base, or cuneate at the base, or oblique at the base, or rounded at the base. Lamina margins usually entire. Vernation conduplicate, or plicate, or convolute.

General anatomy. Plants with silica bodies (in idioblastic ‘stegmata’, which are ‘present in the leaves of many genera’).

Leaf anatomy. Epidermis containing silica bodies, or without silica bodies (?). Stomata present; anomocytic, or paracytic.

Lamina dorsiventral (at least mostly). The mesophyll containing mucilage cells (with raphides), or not containing mucilage cells; containing calcium oxalate crystals. The mesophyll crystals raphides. Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells (Epipactis, Listera). Vessels present (but sought in only two genera); end-walls scalariform.

Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening absent. Xylem with vessels (in 9 of the 15 genera listed by Wagner, 1977), or without vessels. Vessel end-walls scalariform. Sieve-tube plastids P-type; type II.

Root anatomy. Roots with velamen (in epiphytic forms), or without velamen. Root xylem with vessels (in the 4 genera where sought); vessel end-walls simple (in Vanilla, the only genus recorded for this feature by Wagner 1977).

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants usually hermaphrodite. Floral nectaries present (but no septal nectaries). Nectar secretion from the perianth, or from the gynoecium (extrafloral nectaries also widespread). Pollination entomophilous (overwhelmingly, but the original description of the monotypic genus Crybe implies it may be cleistogamous); mechanism conspicuously specialized (in great variety, with complex morphological adaptations to the behaviour of pollinators, and often involving hygroscopic movements of pollinia).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in panicles, in racemes, in spikes, in heads, and in umbels. The ultimate inflorescence unit racemose. Inflorescences scapiflorous, or not scapiflorous; terminal, or axillary. Flowers small to large; fragrant, or odourless; very irregular; zygomorphic (the inner median member being generally enlarged and different in colour, forming the characteristic labellum — this being posterior (adaxial) in origin, but usually appearing anterior (abaxial) through torsion of the pedicel); resupinate (usually), or not resupinate (in Orthopenthea, some species ofDisa, Anochilus, Herschelianthe, Prasophyllum, etc.). The floral irregularity involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers 3 merous; cyclic; supposedly basically pentacyclic. Perigone tube absent.

Perianthof ‘tepals’ (usually), or with distinct calyx and corolla (the outer members sometimes green); 6; free, or joined (two or more tepals often coherent at the base, sometimes adherent to the gynoecium); 2 whorled; isomerous (but zygomorphic); petaloid, or sepaloid and petaloid; without spots, or spotted (occasionally). Calyx (if the outer whorl be so designated) 3 (the median member usually ostensibly posterior); 1 whorled; polysepalous, or partially gamosepalous, or gamosepalous. Corolla (i.e. the members of the inner whorl) 3; polypetalous, or partially gamopetalous, or gamopetalous; imbricate; (labellum) spurred (often), or not spurred.

Androecium 3. Androecial members free of the perianth, or adnate (via fusion of tepals and gynostemium); united with the gynoecium (nearly always fused with the style to form a ‘gynostemium’, except in rare cases when anthers and stigma are more or less sessile); coherent (via the gynostemium); 1 adelphous; theoretically 2 whorled. Androecium including staminodes. Staminodes2 (these morphologically anterior (usually ostensibly posterior), supposedly the abaxial pair of the inner whorl); theoretically internal to the fertile stamens. Stamens 1 (this across the flower from the labellum, i.e. anterior but usually ostensibly posterior, supposedly representing the outer whorl); reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth; alterniperianthial (i.e. with reference to the single stamen, across the flower from the labellum); filantherous, or with sessile anthers. Anthers dorsifixed to basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate; appendaged, or unappendaged. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. The endothecial thickenings spiral, or girdling. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral. Anther wall initially with one middle layer, or initially with more than one middle layer (1 or 2); of the ‘monocot’ type. Tapetum glandular. Pollen shed in aggregates (usually), or shed as single grains (monads known in about 17 genera); when in aggregates, in tetrads, or in the form of pollinia (the single grains or tetrads held together by strands of sterile sporogenous material). Pollen grains aperturate (occasionally), or nonaperturate; when aperturate, 1 aperturate, or 3–4 aperturate (rarely); sulcate, or sulculate, or ulcerate, or porate, or foraminate; 2-celled (in 14 genera).

Gynoecium 3 carpelled. Carpels isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary 1 locular. The ‘odd’ carpel anterior (away from the labellum). Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1 (inflexed); apical. Stylar canal present. Stigmas 1; 3 lobed (but becoming much modified in form, the apex of the median lobe forming the ‘rostellum’); wet type; papillate; Group III type. Placentation parietal. Ovules not differentiated; in the single cavity 30–100 (i.e. very numerous); non-arillate; anatropous; bitegmic (usually), or unitegmic; tenuinucellate. Outer integument not contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type (mostly), or Allium-type. Antipodal cells formed, or not formed (then the nuclei degenerating, e.g. Cymbidium, Dendrobium); when formed, 1–3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Embryogeny when determinable asterad.

Fruit fleshy (sometimes), or non-fleshy; dehiscent (usually), or indehiscent; a capsule (usually), or a berry (e.g. some Vanilleae). Capsules septicidal, or loculicidal. Fruit 30–500 seeded (i.e. seeds usually very numerous). Seeds endospermic (endosperm development arrested very early), or non-endospermic; minute. Seeds without starch. Embryo rudimentary at the time of seed release (usually), or weakly differentiated. Embryo chlorophyllous (6/7). Testa without phytomelan.

Seedling.Seedling collar not conspicuous. Coleoptile absent. Primary root ephemeral.

Physiology, biochemistry. Not cyanogenic. Alkaloids present (commonly), or absent. Proanthocyanidins present (rarely), or absent; when present, cyanidin. Flavonols absent (save for kaempferol in one species of Dendrobium). Ellagic acid absent. Saponins/sapogenins present (rarely), or absent. C3 and CAM. C3 physiology recorded directly in Spathoglottis, Arundina, Coelogyne,Oncidium. CAM recorded directly in Aerangis, Aeranthes, Aerides,Arachnis, Aranda, Aranthera, Ascocentrum, Brassavola,Bulbophyllum, Cadetia, Calanthe, Cattleya, Caularthron,Chiloschista, Coelogyne, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Dimerandra,Encyclia, Epidendrum, Eria, Flickingeria, Gussonia,Jumellea, Laelia, Lanium, Lissochilus, Luisia,Maxillaria, Microcoelia, Micropera, Mobilabium, Oberonia,Oeonia, Oncidium, Ornithidium, Paphiopedium, Phalaenaopsis,Pholidota, Plectrorrhiza, Pleurothallis, Polyradicion,Rhinerrhiza, Robiquetia, Saccolabiopsis, Saccolabium,Sarcochilus, Schoenorchis, Schomburgkia, Solenangis,Sophronitis, Taeniophyllum, Thrixspermum, Thunia, Trachoma,Trichoglottis, Vanda, Vanilla, Vanda. Anatomy non-C4 type (Habenaria, Spathoglottis, Vanda).

Geography, cytology. Frigid zone (rare), or temperate to tropical. Cosmopolitan, most abundant in the tropics. X = 6–29 (or more).

Taxonomy.Subclass Monocotyledonae. Dahlgren et al. Superorder Liliiflorae; Orchidales. APG 3 core angiosperms; Superorder Lilianae; non-commelinid Monocot; Order Asparagales.

Species about 17000. Genera about 850; Aa, Abdominea, Acacallis, Acampe,Acanthephippium, Aceras, Aceratorchis, Acianthus, Acineta,Ackermania, Acoridium, Acostaea, Acriopsis, Acrochaene,Acrolophia, Acrorchis, Ada, Adenochilus, Adenoncos,Adrorhizon, Aerangis, Aeranthes, Aerides, Aganisia,Aglossorrhyncha, Agrostophyllum, Alamania, Altensteinia,Amblyanthe, Ambrella, Amerorchis, Amesiella, Amitostigma,Amparoa, Anacamptis, Ancistrochilus, Ancistrorhynchus,Androcorys, Angraecopsis, Angraecum, Anguloa, Anoectochilus,Ansellia, Anteriorchis, Anthogonium, Anthosiphon, Antillanorchis,Aorchis, Aphyllorchis, Aplectrum, Aporostylis, Aporum,Apostasia, Appendicula, Aracamunia, Arachnis, Archineottia,Arethusa, Armodorum, Arnottia, Arpophyllum, Arthrochilus,Artorima, Arundina, Ascidieria, Ascocentrum, Ascochilopsis,Ascochilus, Ascoglossum, Ascolabium, Aspasia, Aspidogyne,Aulosepalum, Auxopus, Baptistonia, Barbosella, Barbrodria,Barkeria, Barlia, Bartholina, Basigyne, Basiphyllaea,Baskervilla, Batemannia, Beclardia, Beloglottis, Benthamia,Benzingia, Biermannia, Bifrenaria, Binotia, Bipinnula,Bletia, Bletilla, Bogoria, Bolbidium, Bollea,Bolusiella, Bonatea, Bonniera, Brachionidium, Brachtia,Brachycorythis, Brachypeza, Brachystele, Bracisepalum,Braemia, Brassavola, Brassia, Briegeria, Bromheadia,Broughtonia, Brownleea, Buchtienia, Bulbophyllum, Bulleyia,Burnettia, Burnsbaloghia, Cadetia, Caladenia, Calanthe,Caleana, Callostylis, Calochilus, Calopogon, Caluera,Calymmanthera, Calypso, Calyptrochilum, Campanulorchis,Campylocentrum, Capanemia, Cardiochilus, Catasetum,Cattleya, Cattleyopsis, Caucaea, Caularthron, Centroglossa,Centrostigma, Cephalanthera, Cephalantheropsis, Ceratandra,Ceratocentron, Ceratochilus, Ceratostylis, Chamaeangis,Chamaeanthus, Chamaegastrodia, Chamelophyton, Chamorchis,Changnienia, Chaseella, Chaubardia, Chaubardiella, Chauliodon,Cheiradenia, Cheirostylis, Chelonistele, Chiloglottis,Chilopogon, Chiloschista, Chitonanthera, Chitonochilus,Chloraea, Chondradenia, Chondrorhyncha, Chroniochilus,Chrysocycnis, Chrysoglossum, Chusua, Chysis, Chytroglossa,Cirrhaea, Cirrhopetalum, Cischweinfia, Claderia, Cleisocentron,Cleisomeria, Cleisostoma, Cleistes, Clematepistephium,Clowesia, Coccineorchis, Cochleanthes, Cochlioda, Cocleorchis,Codonorchis, Codonosiphon, Coelia, Coeliopsis, Coeloglossum,Coelogyne, Coilochilus, Collabium, Comparettia, Comperia,Conchidium, Condylago, Constantia, Corallorrhiza, Cordiglottis,Coryanthes, Corybas, Corycium, Corymborkis, Corysanthes,Cottonia, Cotylolabium, Cranichis, Cremastra, Cribbia,Crossoglossa, Cryptarrhena, Cryptocentrum, Cryptochilus,Cryptopus, Cryptopylos, Cryptostylis, Cuitlauzina, Cyanaeorchis,Cybebus, Cyclopogon, Cycnoches, Cylindrolobus, Cymbidiella,Cymbidium, Cymboglossum, Cynorkis, Cyphochilus, Cypholoron,Cyrtidiorchis, Cyrtopodium, Cyrtorchis, Cyrtosia, Cyrtostylis,Cystorchis, Dactylorhiza, Dactylorhynchus, Dactylostalix,Degranvillea, Deiregyne, Dendrobium, Dendrochilum, Dendrophylax,Diadenium, Diaphananthe, Diceratostele, Dicerostylis,Dichaea, Dichromanthus, Dickasonia, Dictyophyllaria,Didiciea, Didymoplexiella, Didymoplexis, Diglyphosa,Dignathe, Dilochia, Dilochiopsis, Dilomilis, Dimerandra,Dimorphorchis, Dinema, Dinklageella, Diothonea, Diphylax,Diplandrorchis, Diplocaulobium, Diplocentrum, Diplolabellum,Diplomeris, Diploprora, Dipodium, Dipteranthus, Dipterostele,Disa, Discyphus, Disperis, Distylodon, Dithyridanthus,Diuris, Dockrillia, Dodsonia, Dolichocentrum, Domingoa,Doritis, Dossinia, Dracula, Drakaea, Dresslerella,Dressleria, Dryadella, Dryadorchis, Drymoanthus, Drymoda,Duckeella, Dunstervillea, Dyakia, Earina, Eggelingia,Eleorchis, Elleanthus, Eloyella, Eltroplectris, Elythranthera,Embreea, Encyclia, Entomophobia, Eparmatostigma, Ephippianthus,Epiblastus, Epiblema, Epicranthes, Epidanthus, Epidendrum,Epigeneium, Epilyna, Epipactis, Epipogium, Epistephium,Eria, Eriaxis, Eriochilus, Eriodes, Eriopexis,Eriopsis, Erycina, Erythrodes, Erythrorchis, Esmeralda,Euanthe, Eucosia, Eulophia, Eulophiella, Euphlebium,Eurycentrum, Eurychone, Eurystyles, Evotella, Fernandezia,Ferruminaria, Fimbriella, Flickingeria, Frondaria, Fuertesiella,Funkiella, Galeandra, Galearis, Galeola, Galeottia,Galeottiella, Garaya, Gastrochilus, Gastrodia, Gastrorchis,Gavilea, Geesinkorchis, Gennaria, Genoplesium, Genyorchis,Geoblasta, Geodorum, Glomera, Glossodia, Glossorhyncha,Gomesa, Gomphichis, Gonatostylis, Gongora, Goniochilus,Goodyera, Govenia, Gracielanthus, Grammangis, Grammatophyllum,Graphorkis, Grastidium, Greenwoodia, Grobya, Grosourdya,Gularia, Gunnarella, Gunnarorchis, Gymnadenia, Gymnadeniopsis,Gymnochilus, Gynoglottis, Habenaria, Hagsatera, Hammarbya,Hancockia, Hapalochilus, Hapalorchis, Harrisella, Hederorkis,Helcia, Helleriella, Helonoma, Hemipilia, Herminium,Herpetophytum, Herpysma, Herschelianthe, Hetaeria, Heterozeuxine,Hexalectris, Hexisea, Himantoglossum, Hintonella, Hippeophyllum,Hirtzia, Hispaniella, Hoehneella, Hofmeisterella, Holcoglossum,Holopogon, Holothrix, Homalopetalum, Horichia, Hormidium,Horvatia, Houlletia, Huntleya, Huttonaea, Hybochilus,Hygrochilus, Hylophila, Hymenorchis, Imerinaea, Inobulbon,Ione, Ionopsis, Ipsea, Isabelia, Ischnocentrum,Ischnogyne, Isochilus, Isotria, Jacquiniella, Jejosephia,Jumellea, Kalimpongia, Kefersteinia, Kegeliella, Kerigomnia,Kinetochilus, Kingidium, Kionophyton, Koellensteinia,Konantzia, Kreodanthus, Kryptostoma, Kuhlhasseltia,Lacaena, Laelia, Laeliocattleya, Laeliopsis, Lanium,Lankesterella, Leaoa, Lecanorchis, Lemboglossum, Lemurella,Lemurorchis, Leochilus, Lepanthes, Lepanthopsis, Lepidogyne,Leporella, Leptotes, Lesliea, Leucohyle, Ligeophila,Limodorum, Liparis, Listera, Listrostachys, Lockhartia,Loefgrenianthus, Ludisia, Lueddemannia, Luisia, Lycaste,Lycomormium, Lyperanthus, Lyroglossa, Macodes, Macradenia,Macroclinium, Macropodanthus, Malaxis, Malleola, Manniella,Margelliantha, Masdevallia, Mastigion, Maxillaria, Mediocalcar,Megalorchis, Megalotus, Megastylis, Meiracyllium, Mendoncella,Mesadenella, Mesadenus, Mesoglossum, Mesospinidium,Mexicoa, Microcoelia, Micropera, Microphytanthe, Microsaccus,Microtatorchis, Microthelys, Microtis, Miltonia, Miltoniopsis,Mischobulbum, Mobilabium, Moerenhoutia, Monadenia, Monanthos,Monomeria, Monophyllorchis, Monosepalum, Mormodes, Mormolyca,Mycaranthes, Myoxanthus, Myrmechis, Myrmecophila, Myrosmodes,Mystacidium, Nabaluia, Nageliella, Neobathiea, Neobenthamia,Neobolusia, Neoclemensia, Neocogniauxia, Neodryas, Neoescobaria,Neofinetia, Neogardneria, Neogyna, Neomoorea, Neotinea,Neottia, Neottianthe, Neowilliamsia, Nephelaphyllum,Nephrangis, Nervilia, Neuwiedia, Nidema, Nigritella,Nothodoritis, Nothostele, Notylia, Oberonia, Octarrhena,Octomeria, Odontochilus, Odontoglossum, Odontorrhynchus,Oeceoclades, Oeonia, Oeoniella, Oerstedella, Olgasis,Oligophyton, Oliveriana, Omoea, Oncidium, Ophidion,Ophrys, Orchipedum, Orchis, Oreorchis, Orestias,Orleanesia, Ornithocephalus, Ornithochilus, Ornithophora,Orthoceras, Osmoglossum, Ossiculum, Osyricera, Otochilus,Otoglossum, Otostylis, Pabstia, Pachites, Pachyphyllum,Pachyplectron, Pachystele, Pachystoma, Palmorchis, Palumbina,Panisea, Pantlingia, Paphinia, Papilionanthe, Papillilabium,Papperitzia, Papuaea, Paradisanthus, Paraphalaenopsis,Parapteroceras, Pecteilis, Pedilochilus, Pedilonum,Pelatantheria, Pelexia, Pennilabium, Peristeranthus,Peristeria, Peristylus, Pescatoria, Phaius, Phalaenopsis,Pholidota, Phragmorchis, Phreatia, Phymatidium, Physoceras,Physogyne, Pilophyllum, Pinelia, Piperia, Pityphyllum,Platanthera, Platycoryne, Platyglottis, Platylepis,Platyrhiza, Platystele, Platythelys, Plectorrhiza, Plectrelminthus,Plectrophora, Pleione, Pleurothallis, Pleurothallopsis,Plocoglottis, Poaephyllum, Podangis, Podochilus, Pogonia,Pogoniopsis, Polycycnis, Polyotidium, Polyradicion,Polystachya, Pomatocalpa, Ponera, Ponerorchis, Ponthieva,Porolabium, Porpax, Porphyrodesme, Porphyroglottis,Porphyrostachys, Porroglossum, Porrorhachis, Prasophyllum,Prescottia, Pristiglottis, Promenaea, Protoceras, Pseudacoridium,Pseuderia, Pseudocentrum, Pseudocranichis, Pseudoeurystyles,Pseudogoodyera, Pseudolaelia, Pseudorchis, Pseudovanilla,Psilochilus, Psychilis, Psychopsiella, Psychopsis, Psygmorchis,Pterichis, Pteroceras, Pteroglossa, Pteroglossaspis,Pterostemma, Pterostylis, Pterygodium, Pygmaeorchis,Pyrorchis, Quekettia, Quisqueya, Rangaeris, Rauhiella,Raycadenco, Reichenbachanthus, Renanthera, Renantherella,Restrepia, Restrepiella, Restrepiopsis, Rhaesteria,Rhamphorhynchus, Rhinerrhiza, Rhizanthella, Rhynchogyna,Rhyncholaelia, Rhynchophreatia, Rhynchostele, Rhynchostylis,Rhytionanthos, Ridleyella, Rimacola, Risleya, Robiquetia,Rodriguezia, Rodrigueziella, Rodrigueziopsis, Roeperocharis,Rossioglossum, Rudolfiella, Rusbyella, Saccoglossum,Saccolabiopsis, Saccolabium, Sacoila, Salpistele, Sanderella,Sarcanthopsis, Sarcochilus, Sarcoglottis, Sarcoglyphis,Sarcophyton, Sarcostoma, Satyridium, Satyrium, Saundersia,Sauroglossum, Scaphosepalum, Scaphyglottis, Scelochiloides,Scelochilus, Schiedeella, Schistotylus, Schizochilus,Schizodium, Schlimmia, Schoenorchis, Schomburgkia, Schwartzkopffia,Scuticaria, Sedirea, Seidenfadenia, Sepalosiphon, Serapias,Sertifera, Sievekingia, Sigmatostalix, Silvorchis, Sinorchis,Sirhookera, Skeptrostachys, Smithorchis, Smithsonia,Smitinandia, Sobennikoffia, Sobralia, Solenangis, Solenidiopsis,Solenidium, Solenocentrum, Sophronitella, Sophronitis,Soterosanthus, Spathoglottis, Sphyrarhynchus, Sphyrastylis,Spiculaea, Spiranthes, Stalkya, Stanhopea, Staurochilus,Stelis, Stellilabium, Stenia, Stenocoryne, Stenoglottis,Stenoptera, Stenorrhynchos, Stephanothelys, Stereochilus,Stereosandra, Steveniella, Stictophyllum, Stigmatosema,Stolzia, Suarezia, Summerhayesia, Sunipia, Sutrina,Svenkoeltzia, Symphyglossum, Synanthes, Synarmosepalum,Systeloglossum, Taeniophyllum, Taeniorrhiza, Tainia,Tangtsinia, Tapeinoglossum, Taprobanea, Telipogon, Tetragamestus,Tetramicra, Teuscheria, Thaia, Thecopus, Thecostele,Thelasis, Thelychiton, Thelymitra, Thelyschista, Thrixspermum,Thulinia, Thunia, Thysanoglossa, Ticoglossum, Tipularia,Tolumnia, Townsonia, Trachyrhizum, Traunsteinera, Trevoria,Trias, Triceratorhynchus, Trichocentrum, Trichoceros,Trichoglottis, Trichopilia, Trichosalpinx, Trichosma,Trichotosia, Tridactyle, Trigonidium, Triphora, Trisetella,Trizeuxis, Tropidia, Trudelia, Tsaiorchis, Tuberolabium,Tubilabium, Tulotis, Tylostigma, Uleiorchis, Uncifera,Urostachya, Vanda, Vandopsis, Vanilla, Vargasiella,Vasqueziella, Ventricularia, Vesicisepalum, Vexillabium,Vrydagzynea, Wallnoeferia, Warmingia, Warrea, Warreella,Warreopsis, Warscaea, Wullschlaegelia, Xenikophyton,Xerorchis, Xiphosium, Xylobium, Yoania, Ypsilopus,Zeuxine, Zootrophion, Zygopetalum, Zygosepalum, Zygostates.

General remarks. No double fertilization.


  • Technical details: Aceras, Epidendrum, Orchis.
  • Technical details: Bulbophyllum, Lepanthes, Malaxis, Neottia, Oncidium, Phalaenopsis.
  • Technical details: Angraecum, Epidendrum, Fernandezia, Phaius, Pleurothallis, Vanilla.
  • Technical details: Chysis, Leptotes, Miltonia.
  • Technical details: Orchis maculata (Goebel).
  • British: Orchis and Dactylorhiza (B. Ent. compilation).
  • British: Dactyorhiza incarnata (B. Ent.).
  • British: Cephalanthera damosonium (B. Ent.).
  • British: Corallorhiza trifida (B. Ent.).
  • British: Gymnadenia, Listera, Platanthera (B. Ent. compilation). 
  • British: Listera cordata: B. Ent. 634. 
  • British: Ophrys, Aceras, Spiranthes (B. Ent. compilation).
  • British: Coeloglossum, Neottia, Herminium, Epipactis, Anacamptis (B. Ent. compilation).
  • Australian: Caladenia spp. (photos).
  • Australian: Prasophyllum and Pterostylis (photos).
  • Australian: Diuris longifolia (photo).
  • Anoectochilus regalis: as A. setaceus, Bot. Reg. 2010, 1837.
  • Arundina deusa: Bot. Reg. 37, 1842.
  • Aspasia variegata: Bot. Reg. 1907 (1836).
  • Bartholina pectinata: Bot. Reg. 1653, 1835.
  • Bromheadia palustris: Bot. Reg. 1844, 18.
  • Bulbophyllum barbigerum: as Bolbophyllum, Bot. Reg. 1942, 1837.
  • Bulbophyllum saltatorium: as Bolbophyllum, Bot. Reg. 1970, 1837.
  • Campylocentrum micranthum: as Angraecum, Bot. Reg. 1772, 1836.
  • Catasetum deltoideum: as Myanthus, Bot. Reg. 1896 (1836).
  • Catasetum luridum: Bot. Reg. 1667, 1835.
  • Cirrhopetalum chinense: Bot. Reg. 29 (49), 1843.
  • Cirrhopetalum medusae: Bot. Reg. 12, 1842.
  • Cirrhopetalum thouarsii: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 11 (1838).
  • Corycium orobanchoides: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 45 (1838).
  • Crybe rosea: Bot. Reg. 1872 (1836).
  • Cypripedium purpuratum: Bot. Reg. 1991, 1837.
  • Dendrobium aureum: Bot. Reg. 29 (17), 1843.
  • Dendrobium formosum: Bot. Reg. 1839, 64.
  • Dendrobium sanguinolentum: Bot. Reg. 29 (6), 1843.
  • Dipodium punctatum: Bot. Reg. 1980, 1837.
  • cf. Encyclia patens: as Epidendrum odoratissimum, Bot. Reg. 1415 (1831).
  • Epidendrum clavatum: Bot. Reg. 1870 (1836).
  • Eria bractescens: Bot. Reg. 1844, 29.
  • Laelia anceps: Bot. Reg. 1751, 1836.
  • Laelia anceps var.: as Laelia alba, Bot. Reg. 1839, 54.
  • Laelia pumila: as Cattleya, Bot. Reg. 1844, 5.
  • Lepanthes tridentata: Bot. Reg. 1762, 1836. 
  • Lissochilus roseus: Bot. Reg. 1844, 12.
  • Lockhartia acuta: as Fernandezia, Bot. Reg. 1806, 1836.
  • Lycaste macrophylla: Bot. Reg. 29 (35), 1843.
  • Malaxis unifolia: Bot. Reg. 1290.
  • Maxillaria stapelioides: Bot. Reg. 1839, 17.
  • Maxillaria tenuifolia: Bot. Reg. 1839, 8.
  • Oncidium trulliferum: Bot. Reg. 1839, 57.
  • Orchis maderensis: as O. foliosa, Bot. Reg. 1701, 1835.
  • Peristeria cerina: Bot. Reg. 1953, 1837. 
  • Phalaenopsis aphrodite: as P. amabilis, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 34 (1838).
  • Pleurothallis picta: Bot. Reg. 1825, 1836.
  • Pleurothallis prolifera: Bot. Reg. 1298.
  • Prescottia colorans: Bot. Reg. 1916 (1836).
  • Renanthera matutina: Bot. Reg. 29 (41), 1843.
  • Sarcochilus falcatus: Bot. Reg 1832 (1836).
  • Scaphyglottis violacea: Bot. Reg. 1901 (1836).
  • Spiranthes bracteosa: Bot. Reg. 1934, 1837.
  • Tainia bicornis: as Ania, Bot. Reg. 1844, 8.
  • Warscewiczella flabelliformis: as Zygopetalum cochleare, Bot. Reg 1857 (1836).
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