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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Herreriaceae

                        

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~Liliaceae or Agavaceae

Habit and leaf form. Scandent (sub-) shrubs, or lianas. Rhizomatous, or tuberous. Climbing; stem twiners, or scrambling (sometimes with stem prickles, cf. Smilax). Leaves alternate, or opposite; spiral; leathery (somewhat cladode-like); sessile (concentrated in lateral clusters); simple. Lamina entire; linear to lanceolate; parallel-veined; without cross-venules (?). Lamina margins entire.

Leaf anatomy. The mesophyll containing calcium oxalate crystals. The mesophyll crystals raphides.

Stem anatomy. Xylem with vessels. Vessel end-walls scalariform.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite. Floral nectaries present. Nectar secretion from the gynoecium (via septal nectaries).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in panicles. Inflorescences not scapiflorous; axillary; panicles, with small, scalelike leaves at the base, the pedicels articulated. Flowers small; regular; 3 merous; cyclic; pentacyclic. Perigone tube absent. Hypogynous disk absent.

Perianthof ‘tepals’; 6; 2 whorled; isomerous; sepaloid, or petaloid (?); similar in the two whorls (at least in size and shape); deciduous.

Androecium 6. Androecial members free of the perianth; free of one another; 2 whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 6; diplostemonous. Anthers dorsifixed, or basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse. Pollen grains aperturate; 1 aperturate; sulcate.

Gynoecium 3 carpelled. Carpels isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 3 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary 3 locular; sessile. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1; attenuate from the ovary; apical; short. Stigmas 1; capitate. Placentation axile. Ovules 1–50 per locule (to ‘many’).

Fruitnon-fleshy; dehiscent; a capsule. Capsules septicidal (trilobate). Seeds copiously endospermic; helically winged (and flattened). Testa encrusted with phytomelan; black.

Physiology, biochemistry. Ellagic acid absent.

Geography, cytology. Paleotropical and Neotropical. Temperate to tropical. Subtropical South America, Madagascar.

Taxonomy.Subclass Monocotyledonae. Dahlgren et al. Superorder Liliiflorae; Asparagales. APG 3 core angiosperms; Superorder Lilianae; non-commelinid Monocot; Order Liliales, or Asparagales (assumed by L.W.).

Species 9. Genera 2; Herreria, Herreriopsis.

General remarks. Description very poor. 

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