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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Dipterocarpaceae Bl.

                        

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IncludingMonotaceae (E. Gilg) Maury ex Takhtajan

Habit and leaf form. Trees (often tall with buttressed bases, constituting the ‘mixed Dipterocarp’ forests dominant in Asian lowland rainforests);non-laticiferous and without coloured juice; resinous (Dipterocarpoideae), or not resinous; leptocaul. Mesophytic. Leaves evergreen; alternate; leathery; petiolate (the petiole often geniculate or sinuate); simple. Lamina entire; usually prominently pinnately veined; cross-venulate. Leaves stipulate. Stipules intrapetiolar; free of one another; caducous, or persistent. Lamina margins entire. Domatia occurring in the family (from 4 genera and numerous species); manifested as pits (all).

Leaf anatomy. Mucilaginous epidermis present, or absent.

Lamina dorsiventral. The mesophyll containing mucilage cells, or not containing mucilage cells.

Stem anatomy. Secretory cavities present; with resin, or with mucilage. Cork cambium present; initially superficial. Nodes tri-lacunar, or penta-lacunar. Cortical bundles present, or absent. Medullary bundles absent. Internal phloem absent. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. The secondary phloem stratified into hard (fibrous) and soft (parenchymatous) zones. ‘Included’ phloem absent. Xylem with fibre tracheids; with vessels. Vessel end-walls horizontal; simple. Vessels consistently with vestured pits. Wood parenchyma apotracheal, or paratracheal.

Reproductive type, pollination. Unisexual flowersabsent. Plants hermaphrodite. Pollination entomophilous.

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in cymes (rarely), or in racemes, or in panicles (usually). Inflorescences terminal, or axillary. Flowers bracteate (the bracts caducous); large (showy); often fragrant; regular; 5 merous; cyclic, or partially acyclic. Sometimes the androecium acyclic (the stamens then somewhat irregularly disposed). Floral receptacle developing an androphore (Monotoideae), or with neither androphore nor gynophore (Dipterocarpoideae).

Perianthwith distinct calyx and corolla; 10; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx 5; 1 whorled; polysepalous, or gamosepalous (frequently with a short or long tube); blunt-lobed. Calyx lobes markedly shorter than the tube to markedly longer than the tube. Calyx regular; persistent; accrescent (some or all of the sepals becoming enlarged to constitute a winged fruit); imbricate, or valvate. Corolla 5; 1 whorled; polypetalous, or gamopetalous (the petals often connate at the base). Corolla lobes markedly longer than the tube. Corollacontorted (spirally twisted in bud).

Androecium (5–)15(–100). Androecial members branched (typically with 10 trunk bundles); when many, maturing centrifugally; adnate (often, to the base of the corolla), or free of the perianth; free of one another, or coherent (usually, the filaments connate below); 1–3 whorled (or irregularly disposed). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens (5–)15(–100); isomerous with the perianth to polystemonous. Anthers dorsifixed (Monotoideae), or basifixed (Dipterocarpoideae); dehiscing via longitudinal slits; tetrasporangiate; usually appendaged. The anther appendages apical (the connective extended into a sterile tip to the anther). Endothecium not developing fibrous thickenings. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral, or decussate. Anther wall initially with more than one middle layer; of the ‘dicot’ type. Tapetum glandular. Pollen grains aperturate; 3 aperturate; colpate, or colporate; 2-celled.

Gynoecium 2–3(–5) carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth to isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 2–3(–5) celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synovarious, or synstylovarious; superior, or partly inferior (Anisoptera). Ovary 2–3(–5) locular. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1, or 3; when 3, free to partially joined; apical. Stigmas 3 lobed, or 6 lobed. Placentation axile to apical. Ovules 2–4 per locule; pendulous (or laterally attached); more or less epitropous; with ventral raphe; anatropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Outer integument not contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Synergids hooked. Endosperm formation nuclear. Embryogeny asterad (or by irregular cleavage).

Fruitnon-fleshy; tardily dehiscent, or indehiscent (usually); commonly conspicuously winged by the accrescent calyx, capsular-indehiscent, or a capsule, or a nut (usually). Capsules when capsular/dehiscent, splitting irregularly, or valvular (then the pericarp splitting into three valves). Fruit 1 seeded. Cotyledons 2. Embryo chlorophyllous (5/6).

Seedling.Germination phanerocotylar, or cryptocotylar.

Physiology, biochemistry. Not cyanogenic. Alkaloids absent (?). Iridoids not detected. Arthroquinones detected (Vatica); polyacetate derived. Proanthocyanidins present, or absent; when present, cyanidin and delphinidin. Flavonols present, or absent; kaempferol, or myricetin, or quercetin and myricetin, or kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Ellagic acid present (6 genera, 8 species), or absent (3 genera, 3 species). Ursolic acid present. Saponins/sapogenins absent. Aluminium accumulation not found.

Geography, cytology. Paleotropical (mostly), or Neotropical (Pakaraimaea). Tropical. Palaeotropical, chiefly Indomalayan. X = 6, 7, 10, 11.

Taxonomy.Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Malviflorae; Malvales. Cronquist’s Subclass Dilleniidae; Theales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; malvid; Order Malvales.

Species 580. Genera 16; Marquesia and Monotes (Africa); Anisoptera,Cotylelobium, Dipterocarpus, Dryobalanops, Hopea, Neobalanocarpus,Parashorea, Shorea, Stemonoporus, Upuna, Vateria,Vatica (Indomalayan); Pakaraimaea (Guayana).

 Illustrations:

  • Technical details: Dipterocarpus, Dryobalanops (Lindley).
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