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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Cephalotaceae Neger

                       

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Habit and leaf form. Herbs.Plants ‘carnivorous’. Trapping mechanism passive. The traps consisting of ‘pitchers’ (cf. Nepenthaceae). Perennial (rhizomatous); with a basal aggregation of leaves. Helophytic to mesophytic (in the drier parts of peaty swamps). Conspicuously heterophyllous (the inner leaves flat and simple, the outer at ground level with blades modified as pitchers). Leaves medium-sized; alternate; spiral; petiolate (both types); non-sheathing; (those not modified as pitchers) simple; epulvinate. Lamina entire; cross-venulate. Leaves exstipulate; without a persistent basal meristem.

Stem anatomy. Xylem with tracheids. Vessel end-walls scalariform.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite.

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’. The ultimate inflorescence unit cymose. Inflorescences scapiflorous; terminal; each consisting of a raceme of cymules. Flowers small; regular; 6 merous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium present. Hypogynous disk present (setose-glandular).

Perianthsepaline; 6; 1 whorled. Calyx 6; 1 whorled; gamosepalous (basally). Calyx lobes markedly longer than the tube. Calyx regular; persistent; accrescent; valvate. Corolla absent.

Androecium 12. Androecial members perigynous; markedly unequal (the six alternating with the sepals longer); free of one another; 2 whorled (the alternisepalous members being ‘slightly forward’). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 12; diplostemonous. Anthers dorsifixed; versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; strongly introrse; appendaged (in that the connective is apically swollen and glandular). Pollen grains aperturate; 3 aperturate; colporate.

Gynoecium 6 carpelled; apocarpous; eu-apocarpous to semicarpous (carpels free to basally united); superior. Carpel apically stigmatic; 1(–2) ovuled. Placentation basal. Ovules ascending; epitropous; with dorsal raphe; non-arillate; anatropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Endothelium differentiated.

Fruit non-fleshy; an aggregate. The fruiting carpel dehiscent; a follicle. Seeds endospermic. Endosperm oily. Embryo well differentiated. Cotyledons 2; plano-convex. Embryo straight.

Physiology, biochemistry. Not cyanogenic. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins absent. Flavonols present; quercetin and myricetin. Ellagic acid present. Aluminium accumulation not found.

Geography, cytology. Temperate to sub-tropical. South Western Australia. X = 10.

Taxonomy.Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Rosiflorae; Saxifragales. Cronquist’s Subclass Rosidae; Rosales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; fabid; Order Oxalidales.

Species 1. Genera 1; only genus, Cephalotus.

 Illustrations:

  • Cephalotus follicularis: photo.
  • Technical details (Cephalotus).
  • Technical details (Cephalotus).
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