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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw

                       

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~Caprifoliaceae

Habit and leaf form. (Sub-) shrubs, or herbs. Perennial. Leaves opposite; petiolate; simple. Lamina conspicuously asymmetric, or not conspicuously asymmetric; cross-venulate. Leaves exstipulate (but the opposing petioles connected by a raised line). Lamina margins dentate.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite.

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in cymes (dense). The ultimate inflorescence unit cymose. Inflorescences terminal, or axillary. Flowers somewhat irregular to very irregular; zygomorphic (to subregular); cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent.

Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 8, or 10; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx 4–5; polysepalous; more or less unequal; persistent; open in bud. Corolla 4–5; 1 whorled; gamopetalous; imbricate, or valvate (then induplicate).

Androecium 2. Androecial members adnate (to the corolla). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 2; reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth; shortly filantherous. Anthers connivent (around the style); sometimes latrorse. Pollen grains aperturate; 5–6 aperturate; colporate (colporoidate, with short furrows).

Gynoecium 2 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. The pistil 2 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary2 locular. Epigynous disk present (conspicuous, cylindrical or conical). Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1 (elongate); apical. Placentation basal to axile. Ovules 30–100 per locule (‘many’).

Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; dehiscent; a capsule. Capsules 4–5 valvular. Fruit 50–100 seeded (‘many’). Seeds endospermic (the endosperm more or less fleshy).

Geography, cytology. Paleotropical. Tropical. Southeast Asia to Sumatra.

Taxonomy.Subclass Dicotyledonae; Tenuinucelli (?). Dahlgren’s Superorder Corniflorae (?); Dipsacales (?). Cronquist’s Subclass Asteridae; Dipsacales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Asteranae; lamiid; Order Lamiales.

Species 5. Genera 2; only genera, Carlemannia, Silvianthus.

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