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The families of flowering plants.                                                                                                                                                                

Blandfordiaceae Dahlgren and Clifford

                       

 

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~Liliaceae

Habit and leaf form. Herbs. Perennial (erect, about 150 cm tall); with a basal aggregation of leaves (usually), or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves; cormous and tuberous. Helophytic to mesophytic (in moist sandy and peaty soils and swamps). Leaves alternate; distichous; sessile; sheathing; simple. Lamina entire; linear; parallel-veined. Lamina margins entire.

Leaf anatomy. Stomata present; anomocytic. Hairs absent.

Lamina without secretory cavities. The mesophyll containing calcium oxalate crystals, or without calcium oxalate crystals. The mesophyll crystals druses (? — neither raphides nor styloids).

Stem anatomy. Secretory cavities absent. Secondary thickening absent.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite. Floral nectaries present, or absent (? — no septal nectaries).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’ (usually), or solitary (then axillary); usually in racemes. The ultimate inflorescence unit racemose. Inflorescences scapiflorous to not scapiflorous (the peduncle with leaflike bracts); terminal; racemes. Flowers bracteate (with one leaflike bract); bracteolate (with one bracteole); regular (pendulous); 3 merous; cyclic; pentacyclic. Floral receptacle developing a gynophore (noticeable in the fruit). Perigone tube present (tubular to campanulate).

Perianthof ‘tepals’; 6; joined; 2 whorled (3+3); isomerous; petaloid; similar in the two whorls; yellow, orange, and red (the tube orange-red, the lobes yellow).

Androecium 6. Androecial members adnate (to the perianth tube, about one third of the distance from its base); all equal; free of one another; 2 whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 6; diplostemonous; alterniperianthial. Anthers dorsifixed; versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; latrorse. Pollen grains aperturate; 1 aperturate; sulcate; 2-celled.

Gynoecium 3 carpelled. Carpels isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 3 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary 3 locular; stipitate. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1; apical. Stigmas 1; slightly 3 lobed; capitate. Placentation axile. Ovules 40–50 per locule; anatropous; crassinucellate. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Synergids hooked (with filiform apparatus). Endosperm formation helobial.

Fruit non-fleshy; dehiscent; a capsule. Capsules septicidal. Seeds endospermic (the endosperm starchless); conspicuously hairy (felted). Seeds without starch. Cotyledons 1. Testa papillose- hairy; without phytomelan; brown.

Physiology, biochemistry. Not cyanogenic. Proanthocyanidins present, or absent; when present, cyanidin. Flavonols present; quercetin, or kaempferol and quercetin (?). Ellagic acid absent.

Geography, cytology. Australian. Eastern Australia and Tasmania.

Taxonomy.Subclass Monocotyledonae. Dahlgren et al. Superorder Liliiflorae; Asparagales. APG 3 core angiosperms; Superorder Lilianae; non-commelinid Monocot; Order Asparagales.

Species 4. Genera 1; only genus, Blandfordia.

General remarks. Family description of Dahlgren and Clifford (1985) augmented from Henderson (1987). Its precise relationships ‘remain poorly supported within the asteliod clade’ (Rudall et al. (1998).

 Illustrations:

  • Blandfordia nobilis: Bot. Reg. 286, 1818.    
  • Blandfordia grandiflora: Bot. Reg. 924, 1825.
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